This is 1 of the show. View section, New Space Introduction. The growth of the new Space Economy, innovations in technologies and the emergence of various private companies have contributed to the development of the space industry. Despite this growth, there has also been an expansion of the cyber-attack surface of space systems. The attacks are getting more and more complex and affect the various components of the space system architecture. The Methodology of Threat actors Each space system architecture consists of three main components responsible for different functions: Space, space, and communication. Each component can be hacked by an enemy. Most of the attacks and vulnerabilities are related to communication connections, such as radio frequency connections or in general the ground system. From an attacker's point of view, Lockheed Martin's cyber-killing chain model defines what competitors can complete to achieve their goals. Lockheed Martin cyber-killing chain First, the enemy uses the discovery technique to obtain information about the target. To achieve this goal, it can use Open Source Intelligence or collect emails. Second, the arming technique is deployed, the target is combined with exploitation of an opening and usually results in a payload that can be delivered - such as exploiting a backdoor vulnerability. The third stage is to determine how the armed function is delivered to the destination - for example by e-mail. Then, the enemy uses the target's system to execute code. In phase six, the enemy loads another tool, such as malware or mimicatz. From now on, we come to command and control , which allows an attacker to control the compromised target from a remote central controller, such as Cobalt Strike or Empire. And finally, the enemy can launch actions on targets such as ransomware distribution or data theft. Let's take a closer look at the cyber threats to space systems. Ground Segment threats In data collection, the location stations and terminals have a role. As a result, state and non-state actors are under threat of cyber espionage. Most ground segment cyber attacks exploit web vulnerabilities to allow attackers to lure ground station personnel to download malware or Trojan horses to ground station computers. Entering the ground station network allows the attacker to access the satellite. Once the attackers enter the ground station network, they can access the satellite itself and perform denial of service attacks and take over industrial control systems to control and damage satellites. A report by the NASA Chief Inspector's Office found that in April 2018, threat actors violated the network and stole about 500 megabytes of data on Mars missions. The entry point was a Raspberry Pi device that was connected to the CT network of the NASA Jet Drive Laboratory without authorization or without proper safety inspection. Ground segment systems are facing many cyber threats and various attack vectors that can be used to endanger these systems. Threats to COTS Commercial ready products are ready-made hardware or software that can be purchased and easily installed and designed to work with the existing system. Today, space COTS components support the development of New Space technology with their attributes for small satellite tasks such as CubeSats tasks. Unfortunately, the COTS software used in space applications offers an attractive point of attack for highly risky and threatening actors. These components are well-known and widely available, and we can find general information about their security, including configurations, vulnerabilities, software versions, and more. This information is shared between the cyberenemy community. As a result, COTS components are the targets of different attacks, such as system modification, DoS and data breach attacks. Unauthorized Access Unauthorized access can be done by compromising physical or logical security measures and providing access to floor segment assets. This attack can cause the theft of sensitive data, for example, that can be used against a task operation. Data Manipulation attacks These attacks aim to steal controlled information or to destroy the integrity of different types of data. A typical use condition is to disrupt data and send incorrect commands to space vehicle command and data processing to jeopardize the task. Supply Chain attacks Space space is extremely sensitive to cyber-enabled supply chain attacks. Commercialization and sustainability of the space supply chain in the new era of Space increases the risk of being the target of cyber threats. A supply chain attack will result in unauthorized access to data and systems and software and tools leaking, aiming to damage an organization by targeting less secure elements of the chain. At this stage, an attacker could exploit these vulnerabilities and some vulnerabilities, and then create a back door in the embedded system of supply chain microelectronics, for example. Computer Network abuse Computer network abuse is a violation of the network to which the ground segment is connected. CNE expresses the ability of attackers to attack and exploit vulnerable assets to steal data or gather intelligence about targets to understand how they work and how they are configured. It's about espionage and discovery. Cloud Platforms attacks The new Space era is marked by the expansion of cloud infrastructure use. Various space initiatives take advantage of the infrastructure of cloud service providers. With cloud technologies, space tasks can be designed, tested, executed and analyzed in an easy and cost-effective way. However, cloud service providers are experiencing regular interruptions or disruptions to their network due to cyber attacks. These attacks may appear to be cloud abuse ; a distributed Denial of Service attack for cloud public disclosure services; and attacks on insider threats . Space Segment threats Like earth systems, the space segment is a known cyber-attack target. Spacecraft vulnerabilities are often caused by compromised ground stations, from network components where threat actors can cross the network. Satellites are the targets of the mid-Adam , Zero-Day and ransomware attacks. The US-German satellite ROSAT is an example of such attacks. Threats to COTS As previously described, COTS are reliable solutions for space initiatives. Used in Smallsats satellites such as COTS equipment or electronic parts plastic encapsulated microcircuits , CubeSats. Many CVE vulnerabilities are associated with the COTS component and can be used by attackers. Satellite maintenance becomes a more complex operation once it's in orbit, and with a shorter product lifecycle of COTS, hardware aging becomes an important concern for satellite cybersecurity. Threats to GN&C Guidance is a system that includes navigation and control , components responsible for satellite positioning and components used by the direction and orbit Control System , also known as the Positioning and Control System . GN&C is used to prevent satellites from colliding with space objects and falling into earth's atmosphere. In some cases, this system is required to keep the satellite in an appropriate position when it communicates with the ground station. Therefore, attackers risk the GN&C system to create incorrect navigation data and prevent navigation capability